Genesis 1:30

Genesis 1:30

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1:30

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And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the heavens and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food.” And it was so.

The rest of the animal kingdom is likewise not permitted to kill one another for food. See commentary on verse 29.

Targum Onkelos: and unto every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the heavens, and to every reptile upon the earth in which is the breath of life, every green herb to eat; and it was so.

Rashi: it will be yours for food. And to all the beasts of the earth: He equated cattle and the beasts to them [to man] regarding the food [that they were permitted to eat]. He did not permit Adam and his wife to kill a creature and to eat its flesh; only every green herb they were all permitted to eat equally. When the sons of Noah came, He permitted them to eat flesh, as it is said (below 9:3): “Every creeping thing that is alive, etc.” Like the green herbs, which I permitted to the first man, I have given you everything. — [from Sanh. 59b]

Rambam: As to all the carnivorous and herbivorous animals of the earth, all the birds of the heavens — indeed all the animals which travel across the earth because they have souls which move continuously and hence can move toward food and pleasure and away from death and pain — I give them the non-seed-bearing plants and shrubs as food.” And it was so until the flood of Noah.

Ibn Ezra: and for all the beasts of the earth, for all the birds of the sky, and for all the small animals on the earth. For every living being, including humanity, all plant life shall be food.” Thus, humankind and the animals did not consume flesh at this time; that was only permitted after the flood of Noah. When it was so,

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